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Peer reviewed publications 




1. Ward-Fear G, Bunuba Rangers, Bruny M, Forward C, Cooksey I, Shine R. 2023 Taste aversion training can educate free-ranging crocodiles against toxic invaders. Proceedings of the Royal Society: B; In review.

2. Ward-Fear G, Bunuba Rangers, Bruny M, Everitt C, Shine R. 2023 Teacher toads: buffering apex predators from toxic invaders in a remote tropical landscape. Conserve. Lett. (in press).

3. Van Dooren, T., Price, C., Banks, P., Berger-Tal, O., Chrulew, M., Johnson, J., Lajeunesse, G., Lynch, K., McArthur, C., Parker, F., Oakey, M., Pitcher, B., St. Clair, C., Ward-Fear, G., Widin, S., Wong, B., Blumstein, D. (2023). The ethics of intervening in animal behaviour for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution;

4. Aiyer, A., Bunuba Rangers, Bell, T., Shine, R., Somaweera, R., Bruny, M., & Ward-Fear, G. (2022). Taking the bait: Developing a bait delivery system to target free-ranging crocodiles and varanid lizards with a novel conservation strategy. Ecology and Evolution 12, e8933

5. Aiyer, A., Shine, R., Somaweera, R. Bell, T., & Ward-Fear, G. (2022). Shifts in the foraging tactics of crocodiles following invasion by toxic prey. Scientific Reports 12, 1267.


6. Shine, R., Alford, R.A., Blennerhasset, R., Brown, G.P., DeVore, J.L., Ducatez, S., Finnerty, P., Greenlees, M., Kaiser, S.W., McCann, S., Pettit, L., Pizzatto, L., Schwarzkopf, L., Ward-Fear, G., Phillips, B.L. (2021) Increased rates of dispersal of free-ranging cane toads (Rhinella marina) during their global invasion. Scientific Reports 11(1):1-9.


7. Pettit, L., Crowther, M., Ward-Fear, G., Shine, R. (2021) Divergent long-term impacts of lethally toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina) on tow species of apex predators (monitor lizards, Varanus). Plos one 16 (7): e0254032.


8. Chen, L., Lin, Y., Xiao, Q., Lin, Y., Du, Y., Lin, C., Ward-Fear, G., Hu, C., Qu, Y., Li, H. (2021) Characterisation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the many-lined sun skink (Eultropis multifasciata) and comparison with other Scincomorpha species. Genomics 113 (4): 2526-2536.


9. Pettit, L., Somaweera, R., Kaiser, S., Ward-Fear, G., Shine, R. (2021) The impact of invasive toads (Bufonidae) on monitor lizards (Varanidae): an overview and prospectus. The Quarterly Review of Biology 96(2): 105-125.

10. Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G., Shine, R. (2021) Untangling the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on habitat selection by a tropical rodent. Scientific Reports. 11(1):1-10.


11. Pettit, L., Ward-Fear, G., Shine, R. (2021) A biological invasion impacts ecosystem services: cane toads change the rate of scavenging and the suite of scavengers. Ecosphere. 12(5): e03488.


12. Pettit, L., Ward-Fear, G. & Shine, R. (2021) Invasion of cane toads (Rhinella marina) affects the problem-solving performance of vulnerable predators (monitor lizards, Varanus varius). Behavourial Ecology and Sociobiology 75, 39.


13. Pettit, L, Brown, GP, Ward‐Fear, G, Shine, R. (2021) Anthropogenically modified habitats favor bigger and bolder lizards. Ecology and Evolution. 00: 1– 12.



1. Pettit, L., Ward-Fear, G. & Shine, R. (2020) Choose your meals carefully if you need to coexist with a toxic invader. Scientific Reports 10, 21866.

2. Shine, R., Ward-Fear, G. & Brown, G.P. (2020) A famous failure: why were cane toads an ineffective biocontrol in Australia? Conservation Science and Practice. DOI: 10.1002/csp2.296.

3. Zhou, J., Nelson, TM., Lopez, CR., Zhou, SJ., Ward-Fear, G., Stuart, KC., Rollins, LA. (2020) Microbial function is related to behaviour of an invasive anuran. BioRxiv, 2020.11. 16.385690.

4. Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G., Shine, R. (2020) Predators learning to avoid toxic prey: a study on individual variation among free-ranging lizards. Behaviour. DOI: 10.1163/1568539X-bja10040.

5. Ward-Fear, G., Shine, R., Brown. G. (2020) Within-population variation in dietary traits: implications for vulnerability and impact of imperilled keystone predators. Ecosphere. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.3136.

6. Ward-Fear, G., Pauly, G.B., Vendetti, J., and Shine, R. (2020) Authorship: protocols should include citizen scientists. Nature Correspondence. DOI: 10.1038/d41586-020-00422-9


7. Ward-Fear, G., Pauly, G.B., Vendetti, J., and Shine, R. (2019) Authorship protocols must change to credit citizen scientists. Trends in Ecology and Evolution.


8. Ward-Fear, G., Balanggarra Rangers, Pearson, D., Bruton, M. and Shine, R. (2019) Sharper eyes see shyer lizards: collaboration with indigenous peoples can change the outcome of conservation projects. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12643.


9. Khadiejah, S., Razak, N., Ward-Fear, G., Shine, R., Natusch, DJD. (2019) Asian water monitors (Varanus salvator) remain common in Peninsual Malaysia, despite intense harvesting. Wildlife Research 46 (3), 265-275.


10. Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G., Pearson, D, and Shine, R. (2019) The ecological correlates of boldness in free ranging lizards. Ecosphere 9 (3) : e02125.

11. Tingley, R., Ward-Fear, G., Schwarzkoptf, L., Greenlees, M., Phillips. B., Brown, G.P., Clulow, S., Webb, J.K., Capon, R., Sheppard, A., Strive, T., Tizard, M., Shine, R. (2017) New Weapons in the Toad Toolkit: A Review of Methods to Control and Mitigate the Biodiversity Impacts of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella Marina) The Quarterly Review of Biology 92(2):123-149.



1. Ward-Fear, G., Hayward, M.W., L’Hotellier, F., Herman, K., Kabat, A.P., Gibbons, J.P. (2016) The implications of biodiversity loss for the dynamics of wildfire in Australia. Animal Conservation 19(6): 504-505.

2. Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G.P., Pearson, D.J., Shine, R. (2016) An invasive tree facilitates the persistence of native rodents on an over-grazed floodplain in tropical Australia. Austral Ecology doi: 10.1111/aec.12454.

3. Hayward, M.W., Ward-Fear, G., L’Hotellier, F., Herman, K., Kabat, A.P., Gibbons, J.P. (2016). Could biodiversity loss have increased Australia’s bush fire threat? Animal Conservation 19:490–497.

4. Ward-Fear G., Thomas, J., Webb, J.K., Pearson, D.J., Shine, R. (2016) Eliciting conditioned taste aversion in lizards: Live toxic prey are more effective than scent and taste cues alone. Integrative Zoology doi: 10.1111/1749-4877.12226.

5. Ward-Fear, G., Greenlees, M.J., Shine, R. (2016) Toads on Lava: Spatial Ecology and Habitat Use of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i. PlosONE 11(3): e0151700.

6. Ward-Fear, G., Pearson, D.J., Brown, G., Balanggarra Rangers and Shine, R. (2016) Ecological immunization: in situ training of free-ranging predatory lizards reduces their vulnerability to invasive toxic prey. Biology Letters 12:20150863.


7. Hayward, M.W., L’Hotellier, F., O’Connor, T., Ward-Fear, G., Cathcart, J., Cathcart, T., Stephens, J., Stephens, J., Herman, K., Legge, S. (2012) Reintroduction of Bridled Nailtail Wallabies Beyond Fences at Scotia Sanctuary - Phase 1. Proceedings- Linnean Society of New South Wales 134:A27-A37.


8. Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G., Shine, R. (2010) Using a native predator (the meat ant, Iridomyrmex reburrus) to reduce the abundance of an invasive species (the cane toad, Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 47:273-280.

9. Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G., Shine, R. (2010) Factors affecting the vulnerability of cane toads (Bufo marinus) to predation by ants. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 99:738-751.

10. Pearson, D., Ward-Fear, G.,Shine, R.(2009) Predicting the ecological impact of cane toads (Bufo marinus) on threatened camaenid land snails in north-western Australia.Wildlife Research 36:533-540.

11. Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G., Greenlees, M., Shine, R. (2009) Maladaptive traits in invasive species: in Australia cane toads are more vulnerable to predatory ants than native frogs. Functional Ecology 23:559-568.

12. McFadden, M., Duffy, S., Harlow, P.,Ward-Fear, G.(2008) A review of the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) breeding program at Taronga Zoo. Australian Zoologist 34(3):291-296.

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